By Robert N. Cahn, Gerson Goldhaber

Our present knowing of straight forward debris and their interactions emerged from break-through experiments. This e-book offers those experiments, starting with the discoveries of the neutron and positron, and following them via mesons, unusual debris, antiparticles, and quarks and gluons. This moment version includes new chapters at the W and Z bosons, the head quark, B-meson blending and CP violation, and neutrino oscillations. This publication offers an perception into particle physics for researchers, complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars. during the booklet, the elemental equations required to appreciate the experiments are derived basically and easily. each one bankruptcy is observed through reprinted articles and a suite of issues of a large diversity of hassle.

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The spin of the charged pion was obtained by comparing the reactions pp → π + d and π + d → pp. 6. The photon energy spectrum from π − d reactions at rest. The line near 130 MeV is due to π − d → nnγ . (Ref. 9) 2. The Muon and the Pion 25 cross section for a scattering process with two final state particles is related to the Lorentz invariant matrix element, M, by dσ 1 p |M|2 . 6) In this relation s is the square of the total energy in the center of mass, p and p are the center-of-mass momenta in the initial state and final states, and d is the solid angle element in the center of mass.

P. S. Occhialini, and C. F. Powell 39 40 Ref. 5: Discovery of the Decay π → μν C. M. G. Lattes, G. P. S. Occhialini, and C. F. Powell 41 42 Ref. 8: Observation of the π 0 → γ γ Decay J. Steinberger, W. K. H. Panofsky, and J. Steller 43 44 Ref. 8: Observation of the π 0 → γ γ Decay J. Steinberger, W. K. H. Panofsky, and J. Steller 45 46 Ref. 11: Spin of the Charged Pion R. Durbin, H. Loar, and J. Steinberger 47 48 Ref. 11: Spin of the Charged Pion 3 Strangeness The discoveries of the strange particles, 1943–1959.

If we begin with 1 · 2 the only non-zero factor including η is η ·k, but 1 · 2 η ·k is odd under the interchange of 1 and 2 since this takes k into −k. If we start with 1 × 2 we have as possible scalars 1 × 2 · η, ( 1 × 2 ) · (η × k), and 1 × 2 · k η · k. The first and third are odd under the interchange of 1 and 2 and the second vanishes identically since ( 1 × 2 ) · (η × k) = 1 · η 2 · k − 2 · η 1 · k. A year later, in 1951, Panofsky, Aamodt, and Hadley (Ref. 9) published a study of negative pions stopping in hydrogen and deuterium targets.

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