By Kenneth E. Bruscia

Drastically multiplied, this moment version surveys and defines parts, degrees, and techniques of medical practicer, thought, and examine in track remedy.

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A shaman is a priest or medicine man who uses rituals involving the arts to heal the sick. So what bearing does all of this have on defining music therapy? Everything! The way a culture defines and uses music determines whether it is considered relevant to medicine, healing, or therapy; similarly, the way a culture views medicine, healing, and therapy determines how relevant music is considered to them. A good example is how Moreno (1988) describes the shaman. In most societies, he is multidisciplinary, that is, instead of being a specialist in only one art form, the shaman always integrates music, art, dance, and drama into a holistic approach to healing.

The second assumption is that, though the process of writing this book cannot be described as a formal research study, it has involved many of the xxx Introduction defining features of ethnographic research, as detailed by Griffin and BengryHowell (2008). The following similarities can be discerned. The community of music therapy as defined above can be likened to a focal “case” in ethnographic research, that is, “a specific group of people or a case involving culturally significant practices or actions” (p.

The Agents The next unit was concerned with what was being “used” as a tool or means of therapy, which elements or factors were involved in the process, and which determined the boundaries of the discipline. As shown in Table 3-2, four streams of thought were identified: 1) Music is the only agent of music therapy listed. 2) Music and sound are listed as co-agents, sometimes including movement. ) Music and its special qualities Unique properties and potentials of music Inherent therapeutic potential found in the basic components of music and in music as a complex art form Music, its elements and their influences on the human being Predominantly improvised music Musical feelings and emotions Music within a therapeutic relationship Musical media within a therapeutic relationship Musical media with a therapeutic relationship between one or more clients and one or more therapists Musical and interpersonal relationship between therapist and client Musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them Mutual relationship between client and therapist Trifold relationship between therapist, client, and music Therapist and client working together musically SOUND AND MUSIC SOUND, MUSIC, AND RELATIONSHIP(S) Sound and music Sound (musical or not), music, and movement Sound, music, and noise (receptive or creative, recorded or live) MUSIC AND THERAPIST Music and therapist’s skills Music and the therapist’s self Organized sound and music within an evolving relationship Sound-music language within patienttherapist relationship Unique potentials of music, sound, and movement, and the relationships that develop through experiencing music Analysis of Existing Definitions 27 3) Music and the therapist are listed as co-agents.

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