By Benjamin Weiß

Software program structures play a critical function in glossy society, and their correctness is usually crucially very important. Formal specification and verification are promising methods for making sure correctness extra conscientiously than simply via checking out. This paintings provides an method for deductively verifying design-by-contract requirements of object-oriented courses. The method is predicated on dynamic common sense, and addresses the demanding situations of modularity and automation utilizing dynamic frames and predicate abstraction.

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**Sample text**

His completeness) about θ that is: T rustV al(i, j, θ) (resp. T rustV al(i, j, θ)). The Theorems 3, 5, 7 and 9 respectively are the dual of 2, 4, 6 and 8 and from the fact that agent i has not been informed i can infer that φ is false. 7 Related Works In [17] trust is represented by a probability associated to a binary relation between two agents. It is also assumed a priori that the trust relationship is transitive. These simpliﬁcations are assumed by the authors in order to be able to deﬁne a mathematical model to compute the ”percolation” of trust in a graph of agents.

P ⊥, 2. P A B if the set of edges A functionally determines set of edges B under protocol P, 3. P φ1 → φ2 if P φ1 or P φ2 . In this article, we study the formulas φ ∈ Φ(H) that are true under every protocol P over a ﬁxed hypergraph H. Below we describe a formal logical system for such formulas. This system, like earlier systems deﬁned by Armstrong [5], More and Naumov [10,3,4] and by Kelvey, More, Naumov, and Sapp [8], belongs to the set of deductive systems that capture properties of secrets. In general, we refer to such systems as logics of secrets.

The work presented in [2] is the work which is the closest to our work we have found in the literature. In an informal analysis trust is decomposed into several elements: the truster, the trustee and the purpose of trust. Then, these notions are formalized in the Josiang’s Subjective Logic which, roughly speaking, can be seen as a combination of probability theory and epistemic logic. However, in this work trust purpose is represented by atomic propositions and no nested modal operator is used for reasoning about agents’ beliefs.

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