By Robert J. Sharer

Experience everyday life in Maya civilization, from its earliest beginnings to the Spanish conquest within the sixteenth century. Narrative chapters describe Mayan political lifestyles, economic system, social constitution, faith, writing, war, and clinical equipment. Readers will discover the Mayan calendar, counting approach, searching and collecting tools, language, and kinfolk roles and relationships. A revised and increased variation in line with the newest archaeological study, this quantity deals new interpretations and corrects well known misconceptions, and exhibits how the Maya tailored to their setting and preserved their tradition and language over millions of years. Over 60 pictures and illustrations, a number of of recent archaeological websites, improve the cloth, and an accelerated source middle bibliography comprises websites and DVDs for additional learn. The ultimate bankruptcy discusses what Maya civilization skill for us this day and what we will research from Maya achievements and screw ups. A first-stop reference resource for any scholar of Latin American and local American background and culture.

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Preindustrial states relied on human and animal power, rather than the far greater energy available from steam, electric, internal combustion, and nuclear power. Thus, the size and economic output of preindustrial states was far less than that of industrial states such as our own. The terms polity or kingdom will be used to refer to each independent preindustrial state. For much of their history, Maya polities were small in scale; that is, each independent state controlled a relatively limited territory, measuring only several hundred square kilometers, with a population measured in tens of thousands of people.

The archaeological evidence from Siberia indicates that human groups occupied the Asian side of the land bridge by 30,000 years ago, and the stone tools of these peoples are closely related to the earliest stone tools found in Alaska. The linguistic and molecular genetic evidence points to the same origin and indicates that there were several separate movements of peoples into the Americas from Siberia. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evidence suggests that the ultimate origins of most Native American populations lie in the southeastern region of Siberia.

Population levels reached an all-time high, as did the competition between polities. The southern lowlands were long dominated by the rivalry between the two largest and greatest cities, Tikal and Calakmul, which involved many adjacent and allied centers. Other important cities arose throughout the lowlands, such as those along the Usumacinta River. At the same time, there were large centers in the northern lowlands. Trade and other contacts with the highlands remained strong, and powerful highland polities continued to develop during this era.

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