By A.N. Rai, B. Bergman, Ulla Rasmussen

Cyanobacterial symbioses are not any longer considered as mere oddities yet as vital elements of the biosphere, happening either in terrestrial and aquatic habitats all over the world. it's turning into obvious that they could input into symbiosis with a greater variety of organisms than hitherto recognized, and there are various extra nonetheless to be came across, rather in marine environments. The chapters hide cyanobacterial symbioses with crops (algae, bryophytes, Azolla, cycads, Gunnera), cyanobacterial symbioses in marine environments, lichens, Nostoc-Geosiphon (a fungus heavily regarding arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) symbiosis, and synthetic institutions of cyanobacteria with economically very important crops. furthermore, cyanobiont variety, sensing-signalling, and evolutionary facets of the symbiosis are handled. popular specialists actively keen on examine on cyanobacterial symbioses take care of ecological, physiological, biochemical, molecular, and utilized features of all recognized cyanobacterial symbioses. This quantity on cyanobacteria in symbiosis enhances the 2 previous volumes on cyanobacteria released by way of Kluwer (Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, edited via D.A. Bryant and Ecology of Cyanobacteria, edited via B.A. Whitton and M. Potts). jointly, the 3 volumes give you the such a lot accomplished remedy of cyanobacterial literature as an entire. The e-book will function a beneficial reference paintings and textual content for educating and study within the box of plant-microbe interactions and nitrogen fixation.

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As in the case of the fungal cell wall, the symbiosome envelope bordering the Nostoc cells contains chitin. This finding shows that the envelope is synthesised by a fungal plasmalemma-homologue. , 1996; Schüßler and Kluge, 2001). As mentioned above, the Nostoc cells inside the symbiosome have about 10-fold higher volume compared to free-living cells outside the bladder. Despite the increase in size, the symbiotic Nostoc cells show normal structures. For example, they contain high 24 KLUGE, MOLLENHAUER, WOLF AND SCHÜßLER number of thylakoids and carboxysomes.

1992). However, in contrast to Nostoc in plants symbioses, where heterocyst frequency is increased reflecting that the major role of the cyanobiont is fixation, in Geosiphon the heterocyst frequency does not change. This led us to conclude that here, despite its capability to fix the major role of the endosymbiotic Nostoc is photosynthesis. , 1999). 5 % of its dry weight), Cl (2 %) and K (5 %), whilst the symbiosome (including the Nostoc cells) contains smaller amounts of these elements. Mo concentration was found to be much lower in the symbiosome in comparison to the other parts of the bladder.

Many external factors, like the intensity of ambient illumination, water availability, temperature, and the ionic environment can influence net photosynthesis (see next chapter). In this context the lichen thallus can be seen to provide as a relatively stable environment for lichen photobionts. Usually the lichenforming fungus mediates almost all interactions between the photobionts and the outside world and, by doing so, cushions the impact of environmental extremes. For example, some lichen photobionts are relatively sensitive to strong light.

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