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The same determination is found when one studies the trend to spread scientific knowledge in the latter half of the century. One of the main vehicles for such popularization was unquestionably the magazine Rawda al-madaris (“Garden of the Schools”), which appeared twice a month between 1870 and 1877, publishing information on life in Egyptian schools, articles on a range of subjects both scientific and literary, and as a supplement, in successive instalments, school books or easily accessible works, a number of which remained incomplete.

Centre-Shift to and from Arabic By the twelfth century, Arab scholars could express their science and culture in Arabic with no further need for translations from Greek. On the other hand, Europeans from the year 1000 were feverishly translating Arabic sources into Latin. Arab science was becoming the centre. As we know today, Islamic science is based primarily on the Hellenistic heritage of mathematical astronomy, with local contributions in algebra, alchemy, etc. It is clear that in the fifteenth century Islamic science was more advanced than that of Europe.

Between Japan and the Arab countries, however, comparison is not contaminated by direct contact. When the Japanese opened their country in the late nineteenth century, they consciously strove to halt the aggressive Western powers. The Japanese chose whatever knowledge and ideas would assist them in developing their nation. They enjoyed a period of window-shopping, in which they experimented with and partially adopted many models of scientific institutions – American, English, French, and German.

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