By J. Craig Wheeler

Totally up-to-date moment variation for undergraduate scholars in astronomy and astrophysics.

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That fact represents both an opportunity and a challenge to astronomers and physicists. 3 The solar-neutrino problem Hydrogen burns and neutrinos are produced in the centers of stars because that is where the temperature is the highest. Because neutrinos interact only by the weak force, normal stellar matter is virtually transparent to them. 7. They carry off a small amount of energy that would otherwise be available to heat the star, but this energy is not of great import. The importance of the neutrinos to astronomers is that they come directly from the center of the star, carrying information about conditions in the stellar core.

Another experiment, carefully planned for a decade in collaboration between Ray Davis and Russian physicists, uses the element gallium as a detector. This substance is sensitive to the basic flood of low-energy neutrinos that must be there because the Sun, after all, is shining. The gallium experiment also failed to see the predicted rate of neutrinos! The only remaining conclusion is that something is omitted from our simplest physical picture of the neutrinos. As mentioned earlier, there are three different types of neutrinos, each with their antineutrinos.

1. In practice, the charge repulsion is overcome by investing the particles with heat energy. This gives them more random energy of motion so they collide more fiercely and come closer within the grasp of the nuclear force during an encounter. To burn a nuclear fuel, you have to heat it first by raising the temperature, just as you need a match and kindling for the wood in a fireplace. A protostar must contract sufficiently to heat the hydrogen to get burning started initially. Helium nuclei have two protons, whereas hydrogen nuclei have only one.

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