By José M. Musacchio

“Contradictions” is a common curiosity publication that exposes the incompatibility among well known spiritual ideals and the medical view of human nature. It starts off with a survey of the evolution of religions and their carrying on with, frequently irrational, affects in smooth society. Then, in keeping with his lengthy adventure in neuroscience, the writer takes factor with Decartes concerning the duality of physique and soul. He offers case stories of sufferers with mind illnesses and from those deduces that the soul, faraway from being separate and supernatural, isn't any kind of than our means of experiencing our brains ... and which correspondingly disintegrates once they do. Convincing scientific findings and strong arguments in regards to the universality of fact make this ebook a daring contribution to the talk approximately trust and faith within the sleek world.

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The teachings and the doctrines of these charismatic groups are considered eccentric. In these extreme cases, it is clear that their leader is a disturbed paranoid individual who has induced a shared psychotic disorder in all the members of the sect. However, if the activities of the cult do not have tragic consequences, society does not recognize the psychotic character of the cult’s teachings. The members of the cult could not be judged as delusional, because religious beliefs are protected by the American Constitution.

It is a pervasive illusion to believe that qualitative experiences and the mind are nonphysical phenomena. The overview provided in this book will show that qualitative experiences are ineffable, not because they are mysterious or supernatural, but because they consist in languageindependent neural processes that could be named, but not re-created in the brains of others through explanations (Chap. 4). Actually, languages can only be developed and translated by anchoring words or gestures into qualitative experiences, or by making the appropriate sounds and gestures that are understandable because humans and higher animals have similar phylogenetic backgrounds and common experiences [8] (Chap.

This is probably why Walt Disney’s animated cartoons became so popular, and today animation is used in television, not only in advertisements for children, but also for adults. The existence of animal spirits, however, was disproven in the 1700s, when the Italian physician Luigi Galvani (1737–1798) was able to produce movements in the legs of recently sacrificed frogs by applying electrical discharges to the frogs’ sciatic nerve. The use of electricity to study animals has had far-reaching scientific and philosophical consequences, besides disproving the theory of “vital spirits” to explain animal movements.

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