By Marianne van Leeuwen

The surprising occasions of eleven September 2001 within the usa drew around the globe consciousness to the terrorist phenomenon. This paintings specializes in terrorism and the fight opposed to it in Europe - on contemporary studies, danger perceptions and the guidelines of a number of eu international locations, together with the consequences produced through the eleven September assaults. experts from eire, the uk, Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Greece examine the improvement of probability perceptions touching on terrorism and counter-terrorist policy-making of their respective international locations. To facilitate comparisons among their findings, they've got labored from an analogous set of questions. Their chapters are via contributions on proper policy-making and judgements within the ecu Union, and at the eu enter in United countries policy-making procedures. A precis of major conclusions and proposals can also be offered.

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Additional info for Confronting Terrorism: European Experiences, Threat Perceptions and Policies (Nijhoff Law Specials, 56.)

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Sinn Fein has begun to develop this political base, particularly since the IRA ceasefires. Already it is one of the major political parties in Northern Ireland and is emerging as a significant political movement in Ireland. Currently, it has two seats in the Northern Irish government, 18 seats in the Northern Irish Assembly, 108 seats in local councils throughout Northern Ireland, four seats in the United Kingdom’s Parliament, five seats in the Irish Parliament and 62 seats in local councils throughout Ireland.

The IRA still exists as an unconstitutional army. It still has access to a huge arsenal of arms and as such may still be considered to pose a potential threat to the state. A more realistic threat is presented by two splinter groups that broke away from the IRA, styling themselves the Continuity IRA (CIRA) and the Real IRA (RIRA). Although both are very small, they have been active in preparing and transporting arms and explosives within the state for use in Northern Ireland and Britain. While their level of activity generally pales in comparison with the levels associated with the IRA in the 1970s and 1980s, one was 9 See Agreement Reached in the Multi-Party Negotiations (otherwise known as the Good Friday Peace Agreement).

Cusack, ‘FBI turns spotlight on al-Qaeda’s Dublin operations’, in: Irish Times, 31 July 2002. Irish Experiences and Perspectives 43 monitored and members have been the subject of regular surveillance by the police. Legislative measures aimed at countering their activities have been retained throughout the history of the state. Between 1972 and 1994 the threat posed by the IRA and INLA was considered to be so acute that it drained resources away from ordinary law enforcement activities throughout the state.

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