By Pietro Buzzini, Rosa Margesin

Yeasts are a flexible workforce of eukaryotic microorganisms, showing heterogeneous dietary profiles and a rare skill to outlive in quite a lot of common and man-associated ecosystems, together with chilly habitats. Cold-adapted yeasts inhabit quite a few low-temperature environments the place they're subjected to seasonal or everlasting chilly stipulations. consequently, they've got advanced a couple of variation ideas with reference to development and copy, metabolic actions, survival and safeguard. because of their particular skill to thrive effectively at low or even subzero temperatures, cold-adapted yeasts are more and more attracting consciousness in easy technology and for his or her huge, immense biotechnological potential.

This publication provides our present knowing of the range and ecology of cold-adapted yeasts in around the globe chilly ecosystems, their version concepts, and their biotechnological importance. certain emphasis is put on the exploitation of cold-adapted yeasts as a resource of cold-active enzymes and biopolymers, in addition to their merits for nutrients microbiology, bioremediation and biocontrol. additional, points of meals biodeterioration are considered.

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Up to 4,000 CFU ml-1 (2007) Vorobyova 200–2,000 CFU g-1 dry mass et al. (1997) Gilichinsky 3–400 CFU ml-1 et al. (2005) Butinar et al. Up to 4 9 103 CFU ml-1 (2007) Butinar et al. 25 CFU ml-1 (2005) Butinar et al. Up to 10 CFU ml-1 (ascomycetes) (2011) Butinar et al. 84 CFU L-1 (ascomycetes) and (2011) 2 9 103 CFU L-1 (basidiomycetes) Butinar et al. 7 9 103 CFU L-1 ascomycetes Butinar et al. (2011) evenly distribute the microbes (Abyzov 1993; Rogers et al. 2004). Yeast abundance varies significantly in different substrates, or in the same type of substrate sampled in different locations and seasons.

1 % sodium and Szforzellina glaciers, Italy pyrophosphate, serial dilutions plated in triplicate on RB ? tetracycline, DG18, and DRB ? chloramphenicol. Incubated at 4 °C for 12 weeks and 20 °C for 3 weeks Ancient ice cores, Greenland 200 uL of melted subcores plated on eight media: SAB, YMA, acidified YMA, NA, MEA, PDA, MA, OMA. Incubated at 8 °C for 6 weeks, then 15 °C for 2 weeks de Garcia et al. (2007) Singh and Singh (2012) Butinar et al. (2011) Margesin et al. (2002) Turchetti et al. (2008) Turchetti et al.

25 CFU ml-1 (2005) Butinar et al. Up to 10 CFU ml-1 (ascomycetes) (2011) Butinar et al. 84 CFU L-1 (ascomycetes) and (2011) 2 9 103 CFU L-1 (basidiomycetes) Butinar et al. 7 9 103 CFU L-1 ascomycetes Butinar et al. (2011) evenly distribute the microbes (Abyzov 1993; Rogers et al. 2004). Yeast abundance varies significantly in different substrates, or in the same type of substrate sampled in different locations and seasons. 2. For example, yeast populations were reported to be denser in freshwater than marine water in Brazil (Hagler and Ahearn 1987).

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