By Colin D. Binnie MD FRCP, Raymond Cooper BSc PhD, F. Mauguiere MD, John W. Osselton BSc, Pamela F. Prior MD FRCP, B. M. Tedman

Lengthy replica (cont'd in lengthy field): medical Neurophysiology: EMG, Nerve Conduction and Evoked Potentials is addressed to people who require figuring out of the underlying clinical ideas, right recording recommendations, and the improvement and features of electric potentials in basic topics and the ways that those are plagued by actual components or illness. This starting place will permit the reader to interpret a variety of scientific difficulties at the foundation of first ideas

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Extra resources for Clinical Neurophysiology. EMG, Nerve Conduction and Evoked Potentials

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Furthermore, it reduces the possibility of signal loss from highimpedance electrodes. 4) is 10 kQ (not unusual in EEG recording), then 1% of the signal will be lost (the ratio of 10000 to 1000000). However, if the electrode impedance is 100 kQ, as can happen with small needle electrodes, then about 10% of the signal will be lost. Five or 10 ΜΩ input impedance is usual for EEG machines and 100 ΜΩ for an EMG machine. In some amplifiers, coupling capacitors are not used and the high-pass filter (time constant) can be switched out and records taken that have no low-frequency attenuation.

As noted above, a high impedance reduces the susceptibility to interference. Furthermore, it reduces the possibility of signal loss from highimpedance electrodes. 4) is 10 kQ (not unusual in EEG recording), then 1% of the signal will be lost (the ratio of 10000 to 1000000). However, if the electrode impedance is 100 kQ, as can happen with small needle electrodes, then about 10% of the signal will be lost. Five or 10 ΜΩ input impedance is usual for EEG machines and 100 ΜΩ for an EMG machine. In some amplifiers, coupling capacitors are not used and the high-pass filter (time constant) can be switched out and records taken that have no low-frequency attenuation.

An amplifier increases the amplitude of the signal applied across its two input leads. In simple amplifiers, used for domestic audio equipment, only one lead is regarded as a signal input; the other serves as a reference lead connected to earth (assumed to be potentially immovable), usually via the chassis of the machine. 7(a). Each channel would display the potential differ­ ence between one recording electrode and the (same) reference point. This has two drawbacks: first, it would not be possible to display the potential difference between a particular pair of electrodes; secondly, and much more important, each amplifier would amplify not only the EEG but any difference in potential between the patient's head and the chassis of the EEG machine.

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