By Paul Heger

A few literary expressions within the useless Sea Scrolls led students to allege that their authors professed a dualistic and deterministic worldview of Zoroastrian starting place and that the omission of Moses and Sinai from the Enoch writings evinces phase in Jewish society marginalized the Torah, adopting Enoch s prophecies as its moral guide. This research demanding situations those allegations as totally conflicting with crucial biblical doctrines and the unequivocal ideals and expectancies of Qumran s Torah-centered society, arguing that students allegations are erroneously in keeping with studying historical texts with a contemporary frame of mind and encouraged by way of the interpreter s own cultural heritage. The research translates the correct texts in a way suitable with the presumed doctrines of historical Jewish authors and readers.

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L. Magnes, ), esp. at –. . 53 The rabbinic gzerah shavah interpretive method, amply used in their halakhic decisions, has no logical foundation. 55 The same applies to the øîåçå ì÷ a fortiori method, which seems to be founded on the following logical consideration: if an action is prohibited, a more severe action is certainly prohibited, and similarly its antithesis is a permitted action. Qumran did not apply this method, because even logical considerations can be refuted by another logical consider52 Cf.

Qumran did not apply this method, because even logical considerations can be refuted by another logical consider52 Cf. George J. Brooke, Exegesis at Qumran: Q Florilegium in Its Jewish Context (JSOT ; Sheffield: JSOT Press, ), . ” 54 Bet Shammai, for example, did not apply it (b. Moed Qat. a). We encounter in b. Pes. a and elsewhere the maxim that a scholar cannot use this interpretive method from his own consideration, unless he knows by traditions from his teachers that it has been applied in the past.

27 I elaborate on this assertion over the course of the present study. ” See Paul Heger, “The Development of Qumran Law: ‘Nistarot,’ ‘Niglot’ and the Issue of ‘Contemporization,’ ” RevQ , (): –, particularly at –, regarding the different functions of the interpreter of the Torah and the other members of the community. In essence, the context—that is, what one studies, the äøåú or the èôùî—determines the exact meaning of the term ùøã. Z. . Philosophical/Theological Distinctions in the Approach to Scriptural Interpretation of Legal Issues There is no doubt that biblical texts, and particularly the commands and prohibitions, show many lacunae, inconsistencies, and indeterminate ordinances.

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