By K. M. Gilliver

Drawing on Caesar's personal writings, this ebook bargains an eye-witness account of the Gallic Wars within the context of the cave in of the Roman republic and its descent into civil battle. Caesar's bloody conquest of the Celtic tribes led to the institution of the province of Gaul - smooth France.

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In early spring Caesar marched suddenly on the Senones, taking them before they were able to withdraw into their fortified town or oppidum. With their people and supplies vulnerable, they had no alternative but to surrender. 48 ESSENTIAL HISTORIES • CAESAR’S GALLIC WARS Caesar marched into the Rhine delta with seven legions. Menapian tactics were to withdraw into the marshes, but the Romans built causeways to allow them access to the area, then destroyed all their property, capturing cattle and taking prisoners as they advanced.

They had the advantage of knowledge of both the land and the sea: warfare on the Atlantic with its storms and strong tides would be rather different from the kind of naval warfare Rome was used to in the Mediterranean. The Veneti fortified their hill forts, THE FIGHTING 39 many of which were situated on isolated spits of land more accessible by sea than land, and gathered allies from Aremorica (modern Brittany), the Channel coast, and even the British tribes with whom they traded. Caesar divided his forces and sent them to campaign in different parts of northern and western Gaul, proof that his claims that Gaul was at peace or had been conquered were something of an exaggeration.

Crassus reported to Caesar that only about 12,000 escaped the slaughter, and most of the tribes in the surrounding area surrendered. This was a significant victory and Crassus had succeeded in forcing the surrender of a huge area of southwestern Gaul. Towards the end of summer, Caesar turned on the Morini and Menapii on the Channel coast. They had supported the Veneti and that was reason enough for an attack, but Caesar was probably already considering his campaigns for the following year, which would require a settled situation in northern Gaul.

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