By Arthur G. Johnson, Richard J. Ziegler, Louise Hawley

BRS Microbiology and Immunology is designed in particular for clinical and graduate scholars for profitable instruction for the us scientific Licensing exam (USMLE). This most recent version contains a full-color layout and illustrations all through. The e-book is split into 12 chapters and offers either a "bug" procedure by way of an organ structures technique. It continues to be a succinct description of an important microbiological and immunological innovations and significant info had to comprehend vital human infections and the immune method functionality and malfunction. End-of-chapter evaluate checks characteristic up to date USMLE-style questions with rationales and 4 USMLE accomplished examinations (in 50 query blocks like Step 1) support attempt memorization and mastery of the subject.

A spouse site bargains the absolutely searchable textual content and a web query bank.

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Example text

B. Increase vascular permeability. c. Initiate complement and blood coagulation cascades. d. Cause fever, hypotension, disseminated intracellular coagulation, and shock. 2. Exotoxins are secreted by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; they may be genetically encoded in the bacterial chromosome, a plasmid, or a phage. a. Actions. 2): (1) Alter cellular components (2) Act as superantigens that cause inappropriate release of cytokines (3) Inhibit protein synthesis (4) Increase cAMP (5) Alter nerve impulse transmission b.

E. Gram-negative bacteria are red/pink because they lose the purple dye complex and stain pink/red with the counterstain. 1 to review the Gram-stain procedure and see examples. , pus), the background of human cells will stain red. 2. Acid-fast stain (Fig. 2). This stain distinguishes mycobacteria, all of which are acid-fast (red), from all other bacteria, all of which are not acid-fast (blue). 1. The Gram stain. The photomicrographs at the bottom of the figure show the color variation of Gram-positive cells (left) and Gram-negative cells (right).

9): 1. Gene probes (generally with amplification methods) may be used to determine if an organism carries a gene for drug resistance. 2. Rapid tests are performed on an isolate mixed with a special substrate such as a chromogenic (colored) beta-lactam. If the beta-lactam ring is broken by lactamase, it leads to a color change. 3. Rapid growth detection systems (such as for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) use real-time PCR to detect growth. These tests are performed in a series of ‘‘tubes’’ in which some contain antimicrobials.

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