By Lia Angela Moulopoulos, Vassilis Koutoulidis
MRI presents the easiest technique of imaging the bone marrow without delay and of non-invasively assessing its composition. common age-related bone marrow adjustments, adjustments with regards to pink marrow reconversion, and pathological bone marrow procedures often agree to definite styles that replicate the underlying marrow adjustments and will be basically well-known on MR photographs. as well as traditional pulse sequences, complex MRI innovations corresponding to Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging depict marrow alterations on the microvascular and mobile point respectively.
This e-book offers radiologists with in-depth info at the MRI appearances of standard, irregular and handled marrow following a dependent, pattern-based technique. MRI findings for varied illnesses that impact the bone marrow, rather these of a malignant nature, are awarded intimately. MRI trend attractiveness not just bargains a scientific method of photograph interpretation and analysis but additionally has prognostic implications in regards to a few illness entities. every one bankruptcy incorporates a wealth of top of the range pictures, including Key issues summarizing crucial details.
In addition to radiologists, practitioners with an curiosity in hematology and oncology will locate this textbook-atlas to be a precious source for the most recent, clinically correct advances in bone marrow imaging.
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Additional info for Bone Marrow MRI: A Pattern-Based Approach
Diffusion-weighted images with b-values 0, 150, 250, 500, and 750 s/mm2 (a) and ADC parameter map (b) of the lumbosacral spine of a healthy 24-year-old woman. 2 Fig. 23 DWI of the normal bone marrow, elderly individual. Diffusion-weighted images with b-values 0, 150, 250, 500, and 750 s/ mm2 (a) and ADC parameter map (b) of the lumbosacral spine of a healthy 70-year-old woman. 5 Fig. 24 DWI of the abnormal bone marrow. Diffusion-weighted images with b-values 0, 150, 250, 500, and 750 s/ mm2 (a) and ADC parameter map (b) of the lumbosacral spine of a 54-year-old woman with plasma cell leukemia.
24). Lymphoproliferative disorders (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma) may manifest with a diffuse hypointense pattern. Hypointense diffuse bone marrow patterns may be homogeneous as in patients with leukemia or heterogeneous with superimposed focal areas of even lower signal intensity, a pattern commonly seen in patients with lymphoma; focal low-signal-intensity areas, against a background of diffusely hypointense marrow, may be related to denser aggregates of malignant cells (Fig. 25). Myeloproliferative diseases (polycythemia vera, mastocytosis, myelofibrosis) and myelodysplastic syndromes may also present with hypointense dif- 4 The Abnormal Bone Marrow: MRI Patterns Fig.
17 Contrast enhancement of normal red marrow. Sagittal T1-weighted images of the cervical spine of a 34-yearold healthy man before (a) and after (b) contrast administration show very mild enhancement of the marrow. When ROI measurements were obtained, a mean increase of 10 % in marrow signal intensity was observed after contrast administration MRI of the Normal Bone Marrow: Pulse Sequences careful comparison with pre-contrast fat-suppressed images is performed. With dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging, T1-weighted images of the bone marrow are repeatedly obtained after the bolus intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast, with a temporal resolution in the order of seconds or milliseconds [11, 14–16].
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