By Ian W. Sutherland

This quantity offers a radical account of the constitution and synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides and in their frequent program throughout a vast variety of industries, together with foodstuff, oil and medication. The profitable exploitation of those polysaccharides calls for a legitimate medical knowing in their chemical and actual houses and likewise their biochemistry and biosynthesis.

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Alginase action on substrates. Enzyme activity measured colorimetrically against alginates of differing mannuronic acid content. polymers internally. However, one enzyme functioning as an exoenzyme, sequentially removing oligosaccharides from the polysaccharide chain, has recently been reported. ) differ from the other enzymes of this type in attacking the side-chain of the substrate polysaccharides. C. 3) Alginate prepared from either marine algae or bacterial exopolysaccharides is the substrate for a range of different alginases, all endolyases.

The structure of a bacterial sialic acid, the Kl antigen of E. coli. Other sialic-acid-containing exopolysaccharides are 2,8-a-linked, 2,9-a-linked or alternatively 2,8- and 2,9-a-linked. Others also have D-glucose or D-galactose residues. The central TV-acetylneuraminic acid residue is shown O-acetylated at C7 and C9, as is found in form variants of this polysaccharide. the algal products. Further structural investigations on alginates from the range of bacterial species now known to synthesise this type of polysaccharide, has revealed a range of different polymer types, all with similar chemical composition.

Most dextrans are polymers of high molecular mass. Industrial dextran production is mainly from a strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which yields a polysaccharide with about 95% 1,6 linkages and 5% 1,3 linkages and with a relative molecular mass of about 4-5 x 107 (Fig. 2). Elsinan A further a-D-glucan, elsinan, obtained from culture filtrates of Elsinoe leucospila, has some structural similarity to pullulan, as well as to the polysaccharide nigeran from Aspergillus niger. It is a linear polysaccharide composed mainly of maltotriose units linked 1,3-a to each other, but also containing a small number of similarly linked maltotetraose units.

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