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C. ) When Carthage formed an alliance with Syria against into a province at the . C. ), ( 149-146 measures to counter once West and the East. In Rome destroyed Carthage 53 THE MIDDLE EAST and proclaimed Africa a Roman province. C. ) Greece was put under the supervision of the governor of Macedonia until at last it attained pro- to .

This synthesis, and even more, its allegorical method, deeply influenced the subsequent generations of religious thinkers among Neoplatonists, Jews, Chris- and Moslems. D. 66-70). D. D. D. 132-135), and the complete of the Jewish state. But the ethnic-religious political eclipse of the history Jewish people continued in both the East and West. In view of its ever-shrinking minority in Palestine, Diaspora Jewry now assumed definite leadership. D. , , way of life by continuing the work of the Pharisees and creating the monumental literature of the Talmud.

In this context looking back toward the ancient cultures and nations and then looking forward to our own history we perceive the history of the relations between the Middle East and Rome to be at the same time the history of our own tradition. The relation between the Middle East and Rome discloses a twofold significance in world history: in its political and in its cul- tural aspects. Rome's political history evolved in constant tension Rome and the Middle 50 East. Through its between political genius Rome ROME AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY succeeded in making use of this tension to sublimate its liistorical temporary expressions, and often dangerous consequences in two syntheses: in the concept of the Roman state and in the universality of the Roman Empire.

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