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This is the major mechanism for energy loss of projectiles at low velocities. Projectiles transfer their energies to the target nuclei by elastic collisions, and consequently the target atom recoils. Energy loss due to a nuclear collision is also called nuclear energy loss or elastic energy loss. ( 3 ) Generation ofphotoas. This mechanism is significant only at relativistic velocities. Projectiles emit photons because of deceleration in the medium (bremsstrahlung). (4) Nuclear reactions. For certain very specific combinations of projectile, energy, and target, a nuclear reaction can be induced.

Recently, most authors have adopted d E / N tix (eV-cm2) as the stopping cross section. Experimental physicists formerly used € for this term, that is, E 1 dE N dx = -- (eV-cm2). 4) where (AE)is the average energy lost to a target of thickness N Ax, Ti the kinetic energy transferred to the ith electron with probability Pi,and the integral extends over all possible energy losses in individual collisions. The last term of Eq. 4) describes the cross section d a of the energy loss (stopping process), which therefore is called the stopping cross section.

325 (1930). H . A. Bethe, Z . f h y s . 76, 293 (1932). ' H . A. Bethe, f h y s . R m . 89, 1256 11953). * J . Lindhard, Mur. Fys. M d d . Dan. Vid. Sclsk. 28, No. 8 (1954). J . Lindhard and M. 5. R E I ! 124, 128 (1961). In J . Lindhard, Mat. Fys. M c v l l . D u n . Vid. ScJlsk. 34, No. 4 (1965). 0. B. Firsov, Z h . E k s p . Tcor. Fiz. 32, 1464 [Engl. , Sov. P h y s - J E T P (1957)l 0. B. Firsov, Z h . Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 33, 696 [Engl. , Sot,. -JETP (1958)l. 0. B. Firsov, Z h . Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

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