By G. J. Van Mill

In a comparatively brief time period two-dimensional echo cardiography has turn into an important non-invasive diagnostic device within the day-by-day perform of a pediatric heart specialist who predominantly offers with congenital structural middle affliction in neonates and babies. for this reason, one-dimensional M-mode echocardiography has misplaced so much of its value relatively during this box. consequently, an atlas displaying completely two-dimensional echocardiograms of the most typical and a few much less usually taking place malformations an invaluable addition to the present literature. The confinement to 2­ dimensional imaging by myself allowed an intricate presentation of many of the defects with greater than 2 hundred chosen nonetheless frames and lots of extra explanatory drawings and diagrams. the cloth used to be gathered from sufferers who have been mentioned the dept of Pediatric Cardiology of the Wilhelmina collage kid's health facility in Utrecht in the course of a interval of approximately 2 years. The two-dimensional echocardiographic findings have been correlated with cardiac catheterization information and/or surgeries and/or submit­ mortem investigations. the mandatory echocardiographic apparatus used to be aquired with monetary relief from the Dutch middle starting place. we're indebted to Mrs. J. W. Wetselaar for her striking art. We additionally thank P. D. Woltema and F. J. van Waert for the photographic reproductions, Jacomine Bosma for getting ready and type-setting the full manuscript and Dr. N. Middleton for severely analyzing the English textual content. G. J. van Mill, M. D. A. J. Moulaert, M. D. E. Harinck, M. D. CONTENTS 1. advent and the conventional center creation the conventional middle 2 2.

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Extra info for Atlas of Two-Dimensional Echocardiography in Congenital Cardiac Defects

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The mitral valve is always abnormal because it is composed of three components whereby the anterior leaflet consists of two parts. This may cause mitral incompetence. Hence, the combination of the auscultatory findings compatible with atrial septal defect and a high frequency pan-systolic murmur at the apex of the heart, caused by the mitral incompetence, is very suggestive of a partial atrioventricular septal defect. Left axis deviation on the electrocar- diogram is seldom missing. The vectorcardiogram shows the superior orientation of the QRS loop and a counterclockwise inscription of the loop in the frontal plane.

Parasternal two-dimensional echocardiograms showing a subarterial outlet ventricular septal defect. The site of the septal deficiency is indicated by an arrow. RVOT= right ventricular outflow tract, LV, lv= left ventricle, Ao= aorta, aov= aortic valve, LA, la= left atrium, mv= mitral valve, RV = right ventricle, RA = right atrium, tv = tricuspid valve, pv = pulmonary valve. 15. 14. After a venous echocon- trast injection the R-L shunt is visualized. 3. ATRIAL SEPTUM, ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT AND ANOMALOUS PULMONARY VENOUS DRAINAGE Isolated atrial septal defect is seldom diagnosed in the early months of life.

RA = right atrium, LA = left atrium, tv = tricuspid valve, mv = mitral valve, RV = right ventricle, LV = left ventricle. 1. S-ubcostal four chamber two-dimensional echocardiogram of a patient with partial atrioventricular septal defect. There is a large ventral interatrial communication. pv = pulmonary vein, LA = left atrium, RA = right atrium, ias = interatrial septum, mv = mitral valve, tv = tricuspid valve, ivs = interventricular septum, RV = right ventricle, LV = left ventricle. 3. 1. In this diastolic still frame the opened tricuspid valve is not visible.

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