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The entire advisor to functional paintings within the organic sciences: from notion of the research, via facts assortment, facts research and at last presentation.

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Extra resources for Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects (3rd Edition)

Example text

We can do this in several ways. The most usual is to calculate the standard error, a quantitative estimate of the confidence that can be placed in the mean and which can be presented with it as a single number. 1. d. or SD) measures the spread of actual data values around the mean, on the assumption that these data follow the normal distribution (see p. d. ). e. or SE) measures the spread of multiple sample means around the true population mean. ) of the true population mean. Since sample means are almost always normally distributed, almost whatever the distribution of the raw data, it is always OK to cite a standard error with your sample mean.

3 Differences and trends Although we derived some 23 different predictions from our notes, and could have derived many more, all fall (and any others would have fallen) into one of two classes. Regardless of whether they are concerned with nematodes or crickets or with surviving pollutants or fighting rivals, they either predict some kind of difference or they predict some kind of trend. Recognising this distinction is vitally important because it determines the kind of confirmatory test we shall be looking to perform and therefore the design of our experiments.

33 names of appropriate length, SPSS may have truncated them, depending on the version you are using. You may have to do some editing, in (a) Reading Excel data into SPSS To read the data in Fig. (iii) into SPSS directly from Excel, simply open SPSS, then click ‘File’ and ‘Open’ on the opening screen. Select the directory containing the (b) Excel file in the ‘Look in’ box, and change the ‘Files of Figure (iv) (a) Data from Fig. (i) after having been read into SPSS. Note the type’ box at the bottom from truncated variable headings (as may happen in some versions).

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