By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)
Microorganisms are able to generating a wide selection of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made from just a unmarried kind of amino acid, are a ways much less ubiquitous. the single amino-acid homopolymers identified to ensue in nature are awarded during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and indicates antimicrobial task opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it really is either secure and biodegradable and is for that reason used as a nutrients preservative in numerous nations. moreover, there was nice curiosity in scientific and different purposes of poly-lysine and its derivatives. against this, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, safe to eat, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically transformed to introduce quite a few medicinal drugs. those positive factors are very important for pharmaceutical and biomedical functions. Poly-glutamic acid is additionally a hugely beautiful as nutrients ingredient.
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Extra info for Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature
Have reported that the L-lysine molecule is directly utilized in e-PL biosynthesis (Shima et al. 1983). In most bacteria, L-lysine is biosynthesized by the amino-acid biosynthetic pathway from L-aspartic acid (aspartate pathway, Fig. 4). , L-methionine, L-isoleucine, and L-threonine). 11), which reduces L-4-phospho aspartic acid into L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde. These two key enzymes are subject to complex regulation by the end-product amino acids. Because of the complexity of this pathway, different bacterial species have evolved diverse patterns of Ask regulation.
5 Substrate Specificity of Pls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Abstract Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 (previously named IFO14147) is known to produce the amino-acid homopolymer antibiotic, poly-e-L-lysine (e-polyL-lysine, e-PL), consisting of 25–35 L-lysine residues with a linkage between the a-carboxyl group and the e-amino group.
1997; Voeykova et al. 1998; Paranthaman and Dharmalingam 2003; Choi et al. 2004; Stinchi et al. 2003). In S. 0 Â 10À8). Nihira et al. have reported that the optimal concentration of MgCl2 for conjugation differs among the various strains (Choi et al. 2004). In fact, in S. 0 Â 10À7) (Hamano et al. 2005). 5 Y. Hamano Construction of a Genetically Engineered Strain of S. albulus CR1 for e-PL Overproduction Shima et al. have reported that the L-lysine molecule is directly utilized in e-PL biosynthesis (Shima et al.
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