By Daniel Katz

This examine takes as its aspect of departure an important premise: that the common phenomenon of expatriation in American modernism is much less a flight from the fatherland than a dialectical go back to it, yet one that renders uncanny all tropes of familiarity and immediacy which 'fatherlands' and 'mother tongues' are typically obvious as supplying. during this framework, equally totalizing notions of cultural authenticity are obvious to manipulate either exoticist mystification and 'nativist' obsessions with the purity of the 'mother tongue.' whilst, cosmopolitanism, translation, and multilingualism develop into frequently eroticized tropes of violation of this version, and as a result, at the same time courted and abhorred, in a circulate which, if crystallized in expatriate modernism, endured to make its presence felt beyond.Beginning with the past due paintings of Henry James, this booklet is going directly to learn at size Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein, to finish with the uncanny regionalism of mid-century San Francisco Renaissance poet Jack Spicer, and the deterritorialized aesthetic of Spicer's peer, John Ashbery. via an emphasis on modernism as an area of generalized interference, the perform and trope of translation emerges as significant to all the writers involved, whereas the publication continues to be in consistent discussion with key fresh works on transnationalism, transatlanticism, and modernism.

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278)23 Posnock goes on to point out that the “narcissistic fiction” of selfidentity, the “supposedly safe old house,” is shattered by the alien haunting: “ ‘American consciousness,’ both national and individual, is already violated; the ‘ghost’ of the other always haunts it” (281). But it is crucial to add that James’ passage about haunting here is haunted itself, as James returns to a rhetoric more than twenty years old, for if the “alien” sidles into and repositions the “sanctity of his [the visitor’s] American consciousness” and the “intimacy” of his “American patriotism,” in “Occasional Paris” James had already evoked the cosmopolite’s loss of the “sense of the absoluteness and the sanctity of the habits of your fellow patriots” (721, my emphases).

Ralph enquired. “I don’t know where it begins, but I know where it ends. ” (81) At first blush, this passage is yet another example of Henrietta’s vulgarity and Ralph’s wit. Henrietta, in predictable, journalistic fashion, employs a somewhat inappropriate cliché to make a tautological, jingoistic point: true patriots stay at home. ” It is not so much the “foreign,” then, as the “home” which is at issue here. But note the form of Ralph’s objection: where does home begin? Let us first imagine the implications of the opposite tactic, that of asking: where does home end?

In either event, the passage in The Marble Faun is one of the most important in the novel, and clearly relevant to James’ concerns in The Ambassadors. Obviously, I cannot embark on a detailed analysis of Hawthorne’s novel here, but suffice to say that puritan Hilda’s relationship with Catholicism is couched entirely in the terms of a seduction, one which culminates, in fact, with an actual abduction. However it is a seduction, as the passage above indicates, effected by the maternal agency. Prior to this scene, Hilda has hovered close to Catholic idolatry precisely in her reverence of a Roman shrine to the Virgin, and here, the call of the mother is too strong to resist.

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