By Catherine Raeff

In recent times, there was a proliferation of theoretical and empirical scholarship on how problems with human separateness, or independence, and problems with human connectedness, or interdependence, are performed out in assorted cultural contexts. regardless of contract at the worth of knowing tradition and improvement by way of independence and interdependence, many matters stay open for persisted theoretical refinement and empirical research. This publication offers a clean conceptualization which holds that independence and interdependence are multifaceted and inseparable dimensions of human functioning that could be outlined and enacted in a different way in numerous cultures. hence, the present technique bills for the basic separateness and connectedness of all people in a fashion that's either universally acceptable and culturally delicate. in line with this conceptual process, the point of interest of this article is to delineate how different independence and interdependence concerns are interrelated in the course of improvement in culturally targeted methods. In doing so, the publication bargains a conceptual method that strikes cultural and developmental analyses past investigating no matter if a few cultures price independence or interdependence roughly than others, to investigating how either independence and interdependence are construed and particularized in the course of improvement world wide. regularly Separate, constantly hooked up: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of improvement could be of curiosity to quite a lot of developmentalists in psychology, schooling, relatives reports, anthropology, and sociology. furthermore, the booklet may serve complex undergraduates, in addition to graduate scholars in those diversified disciplines. it may well even be of curiosity to social welfare practitioners, similar to scientific psychologists, information counselors, and social staff.

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But at the same time, they are not becoming “lone selves” needing no one, standing to face the forces of life alone. Rather, they are editing and modifying, enriching and extending their connections to others, becoming more fully themselves in relation. Individuation is reinvested in revised relatedness, and in these commitments lies the integration of identity. (p. , Cooper, 1999; Grotevant & Cooper, 1986, 1998) conceptualized identity formation, as well as social development, in terms of integrating aspects of individuality and connectedness.

Similarly, Buhrmester (1996) pointed out: 34 CHAPTER 1 Social life seems to involve a dynamic interplay between the pursuit of agentic and communal forms of satisfaction. In some instances, agentic and communal needs may be in direct competition with one another, such as when beating a friend in a game brings individual glory at the expense of hard feelings in the friendship. In other instances, agentic and communal aims are in concert with one another, such as when a team victory simultaneously engenders an agentic sense of achievement for each individual team member, along with a communal sense of close comradeship among teammates.

Cooper, 1999; Grotevant & Cooper, 1986, 1998) conceptualized identity formation, as well as social development, in terms of integrating aspects of individuality and connectedness. Overall, the “co-occurrence” model addresses some of the complexities of independence and interdependence, but we are still left with some unresolved issues and questions. For me, a major unresolved issue is whether the terms independence and interdependence represent cultural values that shape development, or dimensions of human activity, or both.

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