By G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor Dr. Jai Prakash Gaur (eds.)

Algae, normally held because the valuable fundamental manufacturers of aquatic structures, inhabit all achieveable habitats. they've got nice skill to deal with a harsh surroundings, e.g. tremendous low and high temperatures, suboptimal and supraoptimal mild intensities, low availability of crucial food and different assets, and excessive concentrations of poisonous chemical substances, and so on. a mess of physiological, biochemical, and molecular ideas allow them to outlive and develop in annoying habitats. This booklet offers a severe account of assorted mechanisms of pressure tolerance in algae, a lot of that can ensue in microbes and crops as well.

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Extra info for Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms

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High pH or high light intensities, cf. Larsson et al. 1997; Larsson and Axelsson 1999), these algae are capable of inducing the type 2 direct HCO]- uptake within 6 to 12 h. This induction is very temperature-dependent, with a QIO value close to 4 (Carlberg et al. 1990), and appears to fail completely at temperatures close to 0 °C (L. ). g. the brown algae Fucus distich us, Pelvetiopsis litata (Cook et al. 1986), and the red algae 30 Carbon Limitation Gracilaria conferta (Israel and Beer 1992), Palmaria palmata (Cook and Colman 1987), Laurencia pinnatifida (Johnston et al.

Axelsson et al. 1991; Raven 1997a). The photosynthetic buffer system of littoral brown algae also functions well in tidal pools. Here, the algae are trapped in still water instead of being emersed. As pH increases, these algae have (for a period of time) the ability to excrete protons. Thus, a considerable part of the DIC can be assimilated without the pH increasing to the high levels where only the direct uptake of green macroalgae can function (Axelsson and Uusitalo 1988). Also in this case, a specific function in light stress avoidance should be considered.

Mar Bioi 97:287-294 40 Carbon Limitation Axelsson L, Uusitalo J (1988) Carbon acquISItIOn strategies for marine macroalgae. 1. Utilisation of proton exchanges visualized during photosynthesis in a closed system. Mar Bioi 97:295-300 Axelsson L, Carlberg S, Ryberg H (1989a) Adaptations by macroalgae to low carbon availability. I. A buffer system in Ascophyllum nodosum, associated with photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ 12:765-770 Axelsson L, Carlberg S, Ryberg H (1989b) Adaptations by macroalgae to low carbon availability.

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