By Helga Stan-Lotter, Sergiu Fendrihan

This fullyyt up to date moment version presents an summary at the biology, ecology and biodiversity of extremophiles. strange and no more explored ecosystems inhabited by way of extremophiles equivalent to marine hypersaline deeps, severe chilly, barren region sands, and man-made fresh rooms for spacecraft meeting are offered. an extra concentration is wear the function of those hugely really expert microorganism in utilized study fields, starting from biotechnology and nanotechnology to astrobiology. Examples resembling novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection options for strength extraterrestrial existence types are mentioned in detail.
The publication addresses researchers and complicated scholars within the fields of microbiology, microbial ecology and biotechnology.

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However, molecular studies did not detect them neither in Bannock nor in Medee DHABs, both showing a wider interface compared to the rest of DHABs (Daffonchio et al. 2006; Yakimov et al. 2013). 5 and 90 %, respectively, in the less salty layer and in the brine of Medee (Yakimov et al. 2013). Along the interface of this basin, Gammaproteobacteria 34 F. Mapelli et al. outcompeted Epsilonproteobacteria, and also SAR11 division was highly abundant. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), functional marker gene for methanogenesis, was detected in Medee brine, although methane production rate was very low compared to the other thalassohaline Eastern Mediterranean DHABs.

Mapelli et al. Borin S, Brusetti L, Mapelli F et al (2009) Sulfur cycling and methanogenesis primarily drive microbial colonization of the highly sulfidic Urania deep hypersaline basin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9151–9156 Borin S, Mapelli F, Rolli E et al (2013) Anammox bacterial populations in deep marine hypersaline gradient systems. Extremophiles 17:289–299 Bougouffa S, Yang JK, Lee OO et al (2013) Distinctive microbial community structure in highly stratified deep-sea brine water columns.

2005). However, similarities can be observed between different brines, as in the case of the recently characterized Thetis brine that is similar to those of Bannock and L’Atalante basins (La Cono et al. 2011). The physical separation of the body brine from the rest of the deep-water column, for thousands of years, makes DHAB ecosystems particularly intriguing for microbial diversity and adaptation studies, as discussed in the following Sect. 3. 3 M  icrobial Communities of the Newly Discovered DHABs in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Most of the microbial surveys performed in Eastern Mediterranean DHABs focused on seawater-brine interface (Borin et al.

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