By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II

Drawing on generally unpublished files, A country Collapses revises the conventional figuring out of a severe second within the heritage of worldwide struggle II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The booklet argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations earlier than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments led to an unexpectedly lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's give up.

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Additional resources for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943

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G. Grandi), whose names were already being mentioned in certain circles. There would be no attempt to build up any potential opponent of the present Fascist regime. 21 The contorted style of this memorandum points to the ambiguity and unresolved contradictions in the British position. Having discouraged initiatives by the Italian anti-Fascists, the British gov- A Nation Collapses ernment remained receptive to the idea of signing a separate peace with an Italian government headed by Grandi. 23 It is important to recognize, however, that Eden's decidedly intransigent attitude toward a separate peace with Italy gradually prevailed and became the official British government position before the Allied decision to adopt the principle of unconditional surrender.

73 As a result, the forces assigned to the Mediterranean were limited from the beginning, since some of them had been allocated to the preparation of the landing in Normandy, the code name for which was Overlord. The landing was prepared amid uncertainty and danger, to which was added a profound sense among the Allies of their own weakness. 76 The decision to land in Sicily brought with it the problem of what kind of occupation should be imposed on Italy. Up to that moment, the United States had delegated the management of Italian political affairs to the British.

In a memorandum to Ambrosio of May 21, 1943, Castellano concluded that defeat could be avoided and the war continued on Germany's side in 42 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender case of a greater Anglo-American commitment to the war against Japan: The fact that the threat to Europe could disappear means that we should remain at our ally's side as in the past, since the differences in ideology and interests between the British and Americans on the conduct of the war can lead to a favorable situation for Germany.

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