By Graeme Barker

This large research files the long term human payment background of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the thoughts of archaeology, historical past and geography, Barker indicates how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his topics and matters together with: ways to Mediterranean panorama background; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The normal panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).

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5). Apart from this route over the river, for much of this century there have been only two other significant river crossings between the Boiano basin and the Ponte del Liscione, the first being the road from Campobasso via Oratino and Castropignano to the Trigno valley, the second linking Casacalenda with Guardialfiera. The dramatic improvement in communications brought about by the construction of the modern valley road is demonstrated partly by the varying distances of the Sannitica, Valle del Biferno and Bifernina from Campobasso to Termoli (80, 100 and 65 kilometres respectively), but more particularly by travel times: by car, the journey from Campobasso to Termoli now takes some three-quarters of an hour using the Bifernina, but two or three hours along the tortuous curves of the other two roads.

Traditionally olives and vines were grown in systems of polyculture or coltura promiscua - that is, mixed together in rows with the intervening spaces used for cereals and other crops (Fig. 13). The system was admirably suited to cope with summer aridity - the roots of the vines, olive trees and annual crops occupied different soil levels and so did not compete with each other for water, and the trees also provided shade - and in winter it raised the ground temperature by several degrees, making for a longer growing season.

1992) describe in their excellent account of the Keos Survey in Greece, full publication is essential because 'how decisions affecting a survey's eventual form are actually made is not widely agreed upon, nor are they often set out in detail in the final report; yet, they materially affect the character of the data acquired by the survey and, still more important, the types of archaeological problems they can be used to tackle' (1992: 13). It is a commonplace that in any archaeological field project, the methodologies selected form the vital link between the general research aims and the nature of the data required to tackle them.

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